Classified statistics of China’s export products, urgent! For investigation.

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there is a database on import and export on the website of the Ministry of Commerce. The data of major export mountains are published every month, which can be consulted

competitive trend analysis of domestic printing market

printing is the cornerstone of information dissemination. Since the invention of printing in China, printing has been the main information dissemination tool for education, entertainment and commerce, and has been firmly integrated into all aspects of human life. Since the 1990s, the third information communication revolution marked by emerging electronic media such as in quantity and Erne quantity has formed a direct competition with traditional print media. At the same time, the Asian financial crisis and the global deflationary trend at the end of the 20th century had a great impact on the printing industry. The overall profit margin of the printing industry fell, and this phenomenon began to spread among industries. The average annual growth rate of China’s total printing output value in the past 10 years is as high as 17.66%, which is one of the fastest growing countries in the world. However, while facing good market opportunities, Chinese printing enterprises are also facing the competitive impact of foreign printing enterprises and other pressures

according to Michael Porter’s industrial competition theory, five competitive power models of China’s printing industry can be established

the market shares of large printing enterprises are 9% and 12% respectively. Shenzhen Jinjia Color Printing Group Co., Ltd., the first printing company in 2004 The operating revenue was only 1.605 billion yuan. In contrast, Donnelly, the largest printing company in the United States, had an operating revenue of US $8.205 billion in 2004, 42 times that of Shenzhen Jinjia

the domestic printing industry shows an obvious trend of block regionalization. The printing industry is a traditional urban industry. With the formation of the economic circle of the three urban agglomerations linked by the industrial chain, three regional printing industrial belts of the printing industry in mainland China are taking shape in recent years. The Pearl River Delta with Guangdong as the focus and the Yangtze River Delta with Shanghai and Jiangsu and Zhejiang as the focus have initially taken shape. The printing industry in the Bohai Rim Economic Zone with Beijing and Tianjin as the focus is also rapidly developing into a regional printing center (as shown in Figure 2)

there are a large number of manufacturers in the domestic printing market, and the competition is very fierce. By the end of 2003, there were 92389 printing enterprises and nearly 3 million employees in China (see Table 1). Foreign funded printing enterprises are the leaders of China’s printing market, among the top 100 printing enterprises in China in 2004 Foreign – funded enterprises have an absolute advantage with 55 listed companies The traditional pattern that state-owned enterprises are the main force of course has been broken

China’s printing industry is a fragmented industry. The top four and eight printing enterprises account for 2.90% and 4.76% of the market share respectively The top four and eight figures in the United States show the competition pattern of China’s printing market

1 The Pearl River Delta printing industry circle

the Pearl River Delta, known for its manufacturing industry, is the largest printing industry circle in China. In 2003, the annual output value of Guangdong printing industry reached 70 billion yuan, accounting for about one third of the same industry in China, and is growing at a rate of 15% – 20% per year. Plus the printing industry in Hong Kong, the output value of the printing industry in the Greater Pearl River Delta has reached 100 billion yuan. There are more than 14400 printing enterprises in Guangdong Province. In 2002, more than 1600 printing enterprises in the Pearl River Delta undertook to print prints from more than 50 countries in the world. In the whole year, they processed more than 4000 overseas prints, with an annual export value of about 20 billion yuan. Based on the huge base and good development trend of the printing industry in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong and Hong Kong are working together to build an international printing center in the Greater Pearl River Delta and strive to develop into a world printing center

  2. The printing industry in the Yangtze River Delta printing industry circle

the printing industry in the urban area of the Yangtze River Delta focusing on Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang is also among the best in China. Among the top 100 printing enterprises in China, there are 33 in the region with an annual output value of 8.7 billion yuan. Donnelly, the largest printing enterprise in the United States, has settled and put into operation in Shanghai; The Asian packaging center has been set to be built in Hangzhou: a number of time-honored state-owned enterprises such as Shanghai printing (Group) Co., Ltd. have regained their momentum through restructuring and technological transformation; a number of private enterprises such as Jiangyin Unicom Industrial Co., Ltd. have grown ambitiously and rapidly; A number of foreign-funded enterprises, such as Shanghai Zijiang color packaging Co., Ltd., have become the most competitive enterprises in the Yangtze River Delta due to their strong capital, advanced technology and equipment and strict management

  3. The current economic development of the Bohai Rim region is relatively backward than that of the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, and the printing industry is also relatively backward. Taking publications as an example, there are more than 200 publishing houses in Beijing, and the publication of books and newspapers accounts for one third of the national total. Coupled with the total volume of major publishing provinces such as Shandong, Liaoning, Tianjin and Hebei, the share of the Bohai Rim region in the national publishing market is more than 40%. Unfortunately, such a great publishing advantage has not been properly reflected in the printing industry. The ownership structure dominated by state-owned enterprises is still the characteristic of Beijing’s printing industry, and heavyweight foreign-funded enterprises and private enterprises have not been formed. At present, Beijing has included packaging, performance, printing and distribution in the city’s ten key projects for the upgrading and transformation of traditional industries It can be predicted that with Beijing’s strong printing foundation and the strength and potential advantages of the Bohai Rim region, the printing industry in this region will have new development soon

potential entrants to the printing industry mainly include foreign-funded printing enterprises and private printing enterprises

  1. Foreign funded printing enterprises

according to the Interim Provisions on the establishment of foreign-funded printing enterprises and the revised regulations on the administration of the printing industry, in addition to allowing foreign investors to establish Sino foreign joint ventures and Sino foreign cooperative printing enterprises, they are also allowed to establish foreign-funded enterprises engaged in printing activities with packaging full of printed matter, and the pace of international capital entering China’s printing industry has accelerated. At present, there are 2100 foreign-invested printing enterprises in China, most of which are concentrated in coastal areas, and there are 900 (more than 20 wholly-owned) in Guangdong Hong Kong capital accounts for 90% of the total, and there are more than 200 enterprises in Shanghai (more than 20 wholly-owned enterprises). After adding w amount o, In 2002, 98 foreign-funded enterprises were newly approved for printing In 1999-2001, only 43 enterprises were approved), with a total investment of 500 million US
dollars. At present, foreign-funded enterprises have become the main force of China’s printing. Many foreign printing media giants are peeping into China’s printing market, such as Germany’s Bertelsmann group. It is expected that foreign-funded printing enterprises will become the most important competitiveness of China’s new entrants.

2. Private printing enterprises

China’s private printing enterprises have reached 35300, which is the second most important competitive force in the printing industry. It is expected that a large number of private capital will enter the printing market in recent years. Restricted by their financial strength, the newly entered private printing enterprises mainly operate the market segments of professional processes and manual processing

new foreign investors will pose a threat mainly from the aspects of scale, technology and market share, while private enterprises will mainly impact the existing market in the direction of price and low cost

since the invention of printing, there is no real substitute for printing. Now the alternative threat of printing mainly comes from the rise of new media, such as online media, portable notebooks, personal channels, etc. (see Table 3). However, based on the deep-rooted reading habits of human beings for written information, it is difficult for the new media to shake the position of the print media in the field of information dissemination. The traditional print media continue to maintain the printing demand, while the emerging media are eroding the traditional media market on the one hand, and its growing advertising market will also drive the printing demand on the other hand

domestic print customers are more sensitive to price than to quality and brand. The usual means for customers is to keep prices down Or require higher quality or more services. In order to achieve this, they may make printing enterprises compete with each other Or do not order products from any single producer. The following factors affect the bargaining power of customers of printing enterprises: first, bidding and bargaining, and driving down the price through competition; Second, centralized batch procurement; The third is the specialization of purchasing personnel, and the fourth is the standardization and differentiation of printing bell

printing enterprises are processing industries, and their technology and cost are extremely dependent on suppliers Such as printing equipment. China’s high-end printing equipment is the largest fixed asset invested by printing enterprises. Whether to own imported printing machines has become a decisive competitive force. At present, high-grade printing equipment mainly depends on imports from Germany and Japan, and the price is basically controlled by a few printing machine manufacturers in Germany and Japan. In 2003, China imported 47113 sets of various printing equipment, with a total amount of 1.35 billion US dollars Greatly exceeding the GDP of domestic printing presses, the total amount of imported printing presses ranks among the top three in the world. Another most important supplier of printing enterprises is paper enterprises. China’s high-grade paper mainly depends on imports from Japan, South Korea, Finland, Singapore, Thailand, the United States and so on Despite the rapid development of domestic paper industry, high-quality paper is basically controlled by the above-mentioned national paper giants, such as Jinguang group, international paper, Oufen Huichuan, Japanese Prince and so on. Paper prices are volatile For example, in the first half of 2004, high-grade paper increased by 20%, causing huge cost pressure to printing enterprises

other auxiliary materials of printing enterprises, such as ink PS plate and CTP plate, no longer have important bargaining power with the localization strategy implemented by foreign material manufacturers in China and the technological progress of Chinese local enterprises

environmental protection printing will be the inevitable development trend of the world printing industry

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with the development of economy and the increasing prosperity of society, environmental protection has become a hot topic in recent years. This is not only a trend problem, but also a problem closely related to people. Everyone is responsible for protecting the environment. It is an important measure to prevent pollution, control the environment and adhere to the path of sustainable development, which is also the internal requirement for enterprises to integrate into the world economic trend and establish a modern enterprise system after China’s entry into WTO. The impact of the packaging and printing industry on the environment can not be ignored. Whether from the environment or the economic changes caused by the environment, the problem of environmental protection will lead to a profound change for the packaging and printing industry. The realization of real green printing is a challenge and opportunity for the packaging and printing industry in China and even the world
I. environmental protection problems in printing production
1 Pollution in the process of prepress output
the prepress process of traditional printing generally needs to go through the selection and treatment of the original, and then output the film through the laser Phototypesetter for plate printing, plate printing, etc. The film contains a large amount of silver ions, which are difficult to degrade into the environment. At the same time, the film contains a large amount of silver ions, which can directly pollute the environment
  2. Environmental pollution during printing
① ink. At present, the traditional solvent ink is still widely used in the printing industry. The solvent ink is composed of pigment, binder solvent, filler and auxiliary agent. The solvents used are mainly organic solvents such as aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones and ethers. Most of these solvents are toxic, and the heavy metals and other harmful components in the ink will directly pollute the packaged food Drugs, cosmetics and other articles; It is volatile and has strong pungent smell, which will pollute the environment and affect the health of workers; Organic solvents are flammable and explosive, and there are problems in production safety

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