What is the solution to the harm brought by plastic bags

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white pollution is a disposable plastic package that is difficult to degrade. For example, disposable foam tableware as well as our commonly used plastic bags. It pollutes the environment seriously. It is difficult to decompose when buried in the soil, which will lead to the decline of soil capacity. If burned, it will lead to air pollution. Therefore, it is now advocated not to use it or use it less. It is best to bring your own tools when buying things to reduce its utilization

first, the current situation and harm of “white pollution”

as a new material, plastic products have the advantages of light weight, waterproof, durable, mature production technology and low cost. They are widely used all over the world and show an increasing trend year by year. The growth rate of plastic packaging materials in the world market is higher than that of other packaging materials. The average annual growth rate of plastic packaging materials from 1990 to 1995 was 8.9%

China is one of the top ten plastic products producing and consuming countries in the world. In 1995, the output of plastics in China was 5.19 million tons, and nearly 6 million tons were imported into Japan. In that year, the total consumption of plastics in China was about 11 million tons, including 2.11 million tons of packaging plastics. Most of the plastic used in packaging is discarded in the form of waste film, plastic bags and foam plastic tableware. These waste plastic packages are scattered in urban areas, scenic spots, water bodies and both sides of roads, which not only affect the landscape and cause “visual pollution”, but also cause potential harm to the ecological environment because they are difficult to degrade

according to the survey, 3% of domestic waste in Beijing is waste plastic packaging, with a total annual volume of about 140000 tons; 7% of Shanghai’s domestic waste is waste plastic packaging, with a total annual volume of about 190000 tons. Tianjin also has more than 100000 tons of waste plastic packaging every year. About 2.3 billion plastic bags, 220 million disposable plastic tableware and 6.75 million square meters of agricultural film are discarded in Beijing every year. People jokingly call it “a vast expanse of white in the suburbs”

“white pollution”, the main harm lies in “visual pollution” and “potential harm”:

1, “visual pollution”. <2 "the waste plastic will cause damage to people's vision and the landscape of the city, and the" waste plastic "will cause damage to people's vision and landscape. After entering the environment, waste plastic packaging is difficult to degrade, resulting in long-term and deep-seated ecological and environmental problems. First of all, waste plastic packaging materials mixed in the soil will affect the absorption of nutrients and water by crops, which will lead to crop yield reduction; Second, discarded waste plastic packages on land or in water are swallowed by animals as food, resulting in animal death (such situations are common in zoos, pastoral areas and the sea); Third, the waste plastic packaging mixed with domestic waste is difficult to deal with: landfill treatment will occupy land for a long time, the domestic waste mixed with plastic is not suitable for composting treatment, and the sorted waste plastic is difficult to recycle because the quality cannot be guaranteed at present, the main problem strongly reflected by people is “visual pollution”, while most people still lack understanding of the long-term and deep-seated “potential harm” of waste plastic packaging II. General practices for prevention and control of “white pollution” at home and abroad 1 As early as 1985, the average consumption of plastic packaging in the United States reached 23.4 kg, Japan 20.1 kg and Europe 15 kg. In the 1990s, the per capita consumption of plastic packaging in developed countries was more (China’s per capita consumption of plastic packaging and other plastic products in 1995 was 13.12 kg) 。 In terms of consumption, it seems that the “white pollution” in developed countries should be very serious, but it is not. The reasons are as follows: first, developed countries have been strict in the management of city appearance for a long time, and few people throw waste plastic packaging at random, basically eliminating the “visual pollution”. Second, the harmless disposal rate of domestic waste in developed countries is high. Take the United States as an example. Before the 1980s, the main way to dispose of waste plastics was landfill. Later, it was found that plastics did not degrade for a long time. After the 1990s, they turned to recycling now a strict classification and recycling system has been established. Most of the waste plastic packaging has been recycled, and a small part has been transformed into energy or harmless disposal in other ways, which has basically eliminated the potential harm of waste plastic packaging the United States has formulated the resource protection and Recovery Act, which has made clear provisions on the technical research, system construction and operation, development planning, etc. of solid waste management, resource recovery and resource protection. California, Maine, New York and other 10 states have successively introduced the recycling deposit system of packaging products. Japan has set out special provisions in laws such as the renewable resources law, the energy conservation and renewable resources support law and the packaging container recycling law to promote manufacturers to simplify packaging and clarify the respective recycling obligations of manufacturers, sellers and consumers. Germany clearly stipulates in the circular economy law that Whoever manufactures, sells and consumes packaged goods has the obligation to avoid, recycle and dispose of waste. Germany’s packaging regulations link the obligation of recycling, utilizing and disposing of waste packaging materials with the right to produce, sell and consume the goods, and decompose and implement the obligation of recycling, utilizing and disposing to all subtle links in the whole life cycle of goods and their packaging materials, so it has strong operability and effectiveness 2. Methods and advantages and disadvantages of preventing and controlling “white pollution” in China at present, China has begun to take measures from both administrative and technical aspects to prevent and control “white pollution” in terms of administration, first, strengthen management. For example, “White pollution” on both sides of the railway, which is more concerned by the society “The problem has been significantly improved by strengthening management. Since the second half of 1994, the railway department has divided sections along the line. Some passenger trains use bagged garbage and prohibit passengers from throwing waste out of the window. The steward does not sweep the garbage out of the window directly as before, but unload the garbage bags at the station for centralized treatment. At present, bagged garbage is used There are more and more garbage trains, and the phenomenon of randomly throwing garbage outside the train is less and less. “White pollution” has been basically eliminated on both sides of the 29000 km line. Practice has proved that strengthening management is an effective means to prevent and control “white pollution” Second, it is forbidden to use disposable plastic packages that are difficult to degrade. Hangzhou is the first city in China to ban the use of disposable foam fast dishes. In September 15, 1995, Hangzhou issued a circular on the prohibition of the use of foam plastic snack boxes by the city appearance and environmental sanitation bureau, the industrial and commercial bureau and the Health Bureau. The notice was published in Hangzhou daily for three days. In the course of execution, the management department discovered that some individual peddlers still sell foam plasti c tableware. Recently, the Standing Committee of the Hangzhou Municipal People’s Congress adopted the regulations of Hangzhou on the management of the appearance of the city and the environment, and the thirty-fifth provision of the Regulations stipulates that sales of non degradable disposable tableware made of foamed plastics shall be prohibited. Violators may be fined 500 ~ 5000 yuan. The regulation will come into force on September 15, 1997. City, such as Wuhan, Harbin, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Xiamen, Ningbo and Shantou, also promulgated policies and regulations to prohibit the use of disposable foam plastic tableware locally. By adopting the above measures, the harm of “white pollution” has been lightened to a certain extent. However, from the practical results, it is very difficult to solve the problem of white pollution completely by prohibition. The city which issued the ban requires the use of paper products or degradable plastic products instead of the original refractory foam plastic products. However, substitutes cannot compete with ordinary plastic products in terms of price and quality. Therefore, under the condition of market economy, it is very difficult to operate only by administrative orders without considering the regulatory role of economic leverage Third, mandatory recycling. Clean waste plastic packaging can be reused or reused for granulation, oil refining, paint making, building materials, etc. Recycling conforms to the general principle of “reduction, recycling and harmlessness” of solid waste treatment. Recycling can not only avoid “visual pollution”, but also solve “potential harm”, alleviate resource pressure, reduce the load of urban domestic waste disposal, save land, and achieve certain economic benefits. This is a good way to treat both the symptoms and the root causes. However, recycling should be carried out before waste plastic packaging enters the garbage. Re sorting waste plastic packaging materials from the garbage dump is not only time-consuming and laborious, but also the utilization value of waste plastics is very low. Because the sorted waste plastic products are too dirty, it is difficult to classify according to the material, and the quality cannot be guaranteed. On the basis of investigation and research, the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau has determined the technical route of “recycling first, substitution second, differential treatment and comprehensive prevention and control”. On June 1, 1997, the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau and the Beijing Municipal Administration for Industry and Commerce jointly issued the notice on the recycling of waste disposable plastic lunch boxes, requiring that units or individuals producing and distributing disposable plastic tableware (including trays, bowls, cups, etc.) in Beijing must be responsible for recycling waste tableware, or entrust other units to recycle. The circular also stipulates that the recovery rate must reach 30% in 1998, 50% in 1999 and 60% in 2000. After the release of the notice, production and distribution units and individuals shall immediately apply for registration with the local environmental protection department and put forward their own recycling plan and specific guarantee measures. This is a breakthrough for Beijing to solve “white pollution”. After achieving practical results, we will gradually increase the types and proportion of waste plastic products that are forcibly recycled, and finally eliminate “white pollution”. Tianjin Environmental Protection Bureau has completed the feasibility investigation report on the prevention and control of “white pollution” project in Tianjin, put forward a set of prevention and control schemes, and determined to achieve the purpose of saving resources and eliminating pollution through recycling. At present, the “recycling plan”, “pilot operation diagram” and “pilot progress outline” are being formulated, and the “Tianjin ‘white pollution’ prevention and control industry association” is being prepared in terms of technology, one is to replace plastic with paper. The main component of paper is natural plant cellulose, which is easy to be decomposed by microorganisms in the soil after being discarded. Therefore, it can solve the “potential harm” mentioned above, but it will also bring new environmental problems: first, papermaking needs a lot of wood, and China’s forest resources are not rich; Secondly, the papermaking process will bring water pollution. In addition, in terms of performance and cost, paper products can not compete with plastic products. At present, China also has the practice of producing disposable tableware with sugarcane stalk and straw as raw materials, but it is still in the experimental stage the second is to use degradable plastics. In the production process of plastic packaging products, a certain amount of additives (such as starch, modified starch or other cellulose, photosensitizer, biodegradable agent, etc.) are added to reduce the stability of plastic packaging and make it easier to degrade in the natural environment. At present, there are 19 units developing or producing degradable plastics in Beijing. The test shows that most degradable plastics begin to thin, lose weight and strengthen after exposure to general environment for 3 months

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